Clinical Immunology (Rezaei) 1 Edition (2022)


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Imagine that you are an ancient being and probably a distant ancestor of all mammals. Your life relies on an elementary defense system. If you are attacked by a parasite or microbe, you stop it from harming you by releasing phagocytic cells or producing and unleashing chemicals against it. Now, imagine that during evolution, you become a more sophisticated being, and soon you realize that you need a more complex defense system in order to protect you against all pathogens. Also, this defense system must not invade your own tissues or harm your cohabitants. This defense system is called “Immune system.” The immune system is one of the most incredible systems of the human body. It is made up of a vast network of cells, chemicals, tissues, and organs that protects our body from pathogenic invaders such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, and it can keep a memory of the invaders to defend the host from any further encounters. In addition, the immune system plays a key role in the pathogenesis of cancer and controlling the growth of cancer cells. Various immunotherapeutic approaches have been approved for cancer treatment, and some of them, namely immune checkpoint inhibitors for solid tumors and CAR T-cell therapy for hematologic malignancies, are breakthroughs in cancer treatment. Any aberration from normal function of the immune system leads to the development of immune system disorders, which can be characterized by abnormally low activity or overactivity of the immune system. Immunodeficiencies are a group of immune system diseases in which the host is incapable of responding to the pathogens, properly and in a protective fashion, and they are divided into primary and secondary based on genetic and environmental causes of the disease, respectively. Any functional, developmental, proliferative, or differentiation defect of one or more components of the immune system results in the development of immunodeficiencies. Other types of immune system disorders, including autoimmune diseases and allergies, are characterized by activation of the immune system in the absence of any pathogens or tumor, or activation of innate immune response and releasing of inflammatory mediators without any evidence of an antigen-immune response in the case of autoimmune diseases or development of unfavorable immune responses against allergens in the case of allergies. Besides the development of immune system diseases, as a result of abnormal immune responses, these inappropriate responses can also lead to the rejection of the transplanted cells, tissues, and organs. Transplantation is a procedure in which cells, tissues, or organs of an individual are replaced by those of another individual or the same person. The immune system, which is designed to defend the host against foreign antigens, may act against the transplanted cells, tissue, or organ and cause rejection. 

In this book, after an introduction to the immune system (Chapter 1), the definition,
epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of allergic diseases,
including asthma, allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis, urticaria and angioedema,
atopic dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis, food allergy and gastrointestinal syndromes, drug allergy, and anaphylaxis are discussed (Chapter 2). Afterward, the immune
cells and immune responses, which are involved in autoimmune reaction, initiation, and
facilitation of autoimmunity, human multisystem autoimmune diseases, and some more
common system-specific autoimmune diseases, are reviewed (Chapter 3). This book discusses the interaction between the immune system and transformed cells and provides
an updated review on the application of immunotherapy for different cancer types,
combination therapy, and immunoediting after other therapeutic approaches (Chapter
4). Then, it presents the types of immunodeficiency diseases, their possible diagnosis,
and treatment (Chapter 5). Also, the definition and epidemiology, molecular mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases (Chapter 6) and different types of
transplantations, the immunopathogenesis of transplantation, the process of matching
the donor and the recipient, pretransplantation conditioning, and complications after
transplant, and ways to manage them (Chapter 7) are reviewed in this book.
I hope that this book will be welcomed by basic scientists and clinicians who wish
to extend their knowledge in the field of clinical immunology.


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