Toronto Notes 2022 pdf


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Tirty-eight years ago, Toronto Notes began as a humble
initiative, with medical students from the University of Toronto
collecting and circulating their notes. Nearly four decades later
– with annual editions and an ever-expanding vision – Toronto
Notes has become one of the most trusted medical review texts;
it is a resource that is cherished by trainees and physicians
throughout Canada and around the world.
Te Toronto Notes for Medical Students Inc. is a nonproft
corporation whose mission is to provide a trusted medical
resource in order to give back to our community. Tis year,
while our global community continued their fght for racial
justice and battled the COVID-19 pandemic, locally we were

also devastated by the loss of our colleague, Mohammad Asadi-
Lari, an MD-PhD student at the Temerty Faculty of Medicine,

who was a passenger on the Ukrainian Airlines Flight 752 that
crashed on January 8th, 2021. As a country, we also reeled from
the discovery of unmarked graves across Residential Schools in
Canada, reminding us once again of the discrimination, injustice,
and racism Indigenous Peoples have faced and continue to
face. Keeping in line with our values and community needs,
all proceeds from Toronto Notes sales are directly donated to
support both global and local initiatives. Tis year we have
contributed to a new program by the Community of Support at
the University of Toronto, the Indigenous Student Mentorship
Fund, to support Indigenous students in gaining mentorship
for careers in medicine. Toronto Notes also supported the Black
Health Alliance with their African, Caribbean, Black (ACB)
COVID-19 Public Awareness Initiative – a collaboration with
the Black Medical Students Association of Canada, and the
Black Youth Helpline. Among other initiatives, we have also
supported U of T Medicine class activities, student scholarships
and bursaries (such as the Mohammad and Zeynab Asadi-Lari
award), our Dafy annual musical fundraiser for the Canadian
Cancer Society, and the entirety of our (over twenty-fve)
student-led outreach programs that seek to enrich lives in the
Tis is why we, and all the members of our U of T team, gladly
dedicated so many hours toward this immensely involved
project. As our valued reader, we thank you for your honest
and vital fnancial contribution through your purchase of our
textbook. Each book sold makes an important diference.
Te 2022 edition features substantial content revisions to
the text, fgures, and graphics of all 32 chapters, following a
comprehensive review by our student and faculty editorial
team. Up-to-date, evidence-based medicine studies are also
summarized in highlighted boxes throughout the text. Tis year,
one of our priorities was to include a table of ofen discussed
Landmark Clinical Trials in every chapter. Alongside our
textbook-wide revisions, the Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery,
the Geriatric Medicine, and the Infectious Diseases chapters
have received substantial expansions to increase their utility
in practice. In addition to content updates, the Toronto Notes
2022 Clinical Handbook chapters now include a section on Do
Not Miss Diagnoses to guide your learning during clerkship
rotations. Toronto Notes prioritizes cultural sensitivity, health
equity, and strives for accurate representation of our vibrant and
diverse communities. To enhance our team’s editorial lens on
these concepts while editing the chapters, training was provided
by the Anti-Racism and Cultural Diversity Ofce and Ofce of
Inclusion & Diversity at the University of Toronto.
We sincerely thank each of our 207 student editors and 101 faculty
editors, whose meticulous revisions and shared dedication to
the bettering of this text has helped make Toronto Notes 2022
possible. We have learned so much from leading this team, and
are especially grateful to everyone for contributions to Toronto
Notes with challenging time commitments and demands. We
thank our incredible Associate Editors – Ming Li, Jacqui van
Warmerdam, Tomas Chang, Andreea Damian, Winston Li
and Ashmita Singh – for their tireless leadership, exceptional
organization, and wonderful teamwork. We, and the success of
this edition, lean on their shoulders. We also thank our Clinical
Handbook Editors – Benjamin Baker, Cathy Huilin Lu, and
Chunyi Christie Tan—for their exceptional editorial leadership
and spearheading the work on this resource. We are grateful
to our Production Managers – Jennifer Parker and Anders
Erickson – who make Toronto Notes’ operations a reality with

their daily work. We owe a great deal of gratitude to the Editors-
in-Chief of the 2021 edition – Megan Drupals and Matthaeus

Ware – for their continued guidance over the past two years.
Lastly, we thank our longtime partners at Type & Graphics Inc
– especially our backbone, Enrica Aguilera and Maria Garcia —
for their years of support and excellent work producing Toronto
Notes 2022. Finally, we thank you for supporting our initiative
by purchasing and reading our product. We hope that you will
fnd Toronto Notes 2022 to be a useful companion on your
medical journey, both now and for years to come.


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